If your cat is experiencing recurrent seizures, your vet may diagnose your cat with epilepsy. Our veterinary neurologists at Atlantic Coast New York Veterinary Specialists in Long Island will explain what epilepsy in cats is and what the symptom and treatments are.
What is Epilepsy in Cats?
Epilepsy is a condition in cats that is characterized by recurrent seizures, which means that if your cat only experiences a single seizure they do not have epilepsy. We would still recommend talking to your vet if your cat has a seizure.
Idiopathic epilepsy is an inherited condition, but inherited seizures are not typically seen in cats. Idiopathic epilepsy is a diagnosis sometimes given for cats when there is no apparent structural cause for the pet's seizures.
What Causes Seizures in Cats?
Seizures in cats tend to be much rarer than seizures in dogs, and rather than being caused by an inherited condition, seizures in cats typically stem from disease or injury within the cat's brain (intracranial), or external factors such as toxins (extracranial causes). Seizures in cats also fall into one of a number of different categories.
Some of the most common causes of seizures from within a cat's brain are structural diseases such as a tumor, inflammation of the brain, an infection (encephalitis), brain malformation, stroke, or head trauma. If your cat is experiencing seizures due to intracranial causes they may also show other symptoms such as circling, restlessness, or unusual lethargy.
A diagnosis of primary epilepsy means that your cat's seizures are due to functional problems in the brain rather than structural issues. This means that there is a chemical imbalance within your cat's brain between the excitatory signals and inhibitory signals. Cats with primary epilepsy will often begin to have seizures while they are in young adulthood.
If the cause of your cat's seizures is diagnosed as stemming from a condition outside of the brain (extracranial), either poisons or metabolic diseases are typically the cause.
Reactive Epileptic Seizures
If your cat's brain is healthy, seizures may be caused due to a reaction to poisons and toxins, or due to changes in blood composition stemming from metabolic conditions such as diabetes or liver and kidney disease. If the cause of your cat's seizure is due to exposure to a toxin, there will typically only be a single seizure. Please be aware that some plant that are safe for humans are poisonous to your cat.
What are the Symptoms of Epilepsy in Cats?
Seizures in cats generally only last a couple of minutes although in some cases animals can experience cluster seizures where there are multiple seizures over the course of a few hours or a few days. The types of symptoms you notice in your cat if they are having a seizure will depend upon whether the seizure is generalized or partial.
- Signs of a partial seizure include strange behavior, abnormal posture, unusual vocalizations, drooling or twitching.
- Generalized seizures often (but not always) begin with behavioral changes followed by symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, chewing, twitching, salivating, defecation or urination.
How is Epilepsy in Cats Diagnosed and Treated?
Diagnoses is essential when it comes to seizures in cats. Due to the many possible causes diagnostic testing may include blood tests, urinalysis, spinal fluid testing, x-rays, MRI or CT scans.
The goal of testing and diagnosis is to pinpoint the underlying cause of your cat's seizures in order to determine the best possible treatment for your cat's condition.
Treating seizures in cats is important because recurrent seizures can lead to further brain damage, more severe seizures or other health complications. When treating cats with seizures the primary focus is on the underlying cause of your cat's condition. In cases where there is no treatment available for the underlying cause, or the cause remains unknown, anti-convulsant medication may be prescribed by your vet.
Successful treatment of epilepsy is a reduction in the number of seizures, and their severity rather than a complete absence of seizures. Total prevention is rarely achieved, however even with occasional seizures your cat can go on to have a good quality of life.
Ongoing Treatment of Cats With Epilepsy
If your cat is diagnosed with epilepsy they will need to continue taking medication for life, and it's important that you:
- Always follow dosage and timing instructions on your cat's medications. The timing of medication is an important element in the successful treatment of seizures in cats.
- Do not run out of medication. The sudden withdrawal of these medications can lead to uncontrollable seizures.
- Keep these medications in a safe place where children and other animals cannot reach!
- Consult your veterinarian before giving your pet any other medications or supplements in order to avoid any drug interactions.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.